Saturday, March 14, 2020

Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Essays

Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Essays Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Paper Determination Of The Valency Of Magnesium Paper 1. To determine the stoichiometry of the magnesium 2. To study the quantitative relations between amounts of reactants and products of the reaction. Theory Background : Stoichiometry is the study of the combination of elements in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry refers to the relative number of atoms of various elements found in a chemical substance and is often useful in characterizing a chemical reaction. The related term stoichiometric is often used in thermodynamics to refer to the perfect mixture of a fuel and air. Stoichiometry is often used to balance chemical equations. In this experimet, a known starting mass of magnesium and the measured collection of hydrogen gas will be used to determine the reaction stoichiometry. Stoichiometry rests upon the law of conservation of mass, the law of definite proportions and the law of multiple proportions. In general, chemical reactions combine in definite ratios of chemicals. Since chemical reactions can neither create nor destroy matter, nor transmute one element into another, the amount of each element must be the same throughout the overall reaction. This experiment determines the stoichiometry of a reaction of magnesium and hydrochloric acid(HCl). The relationship between moles of magnesium reacted and moles of hydrogen produced are plotted. Magnesium ribbon is a strip of magnesium that is solid at room temperature. When mixed with hydrochloric acid it produces magnesium chloride, which is a liquid and hydrogen gas. The below is the equation that occurs: Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 The word stoichiometry is also used for stoichiometry compound (eg: MgCl the proportion molecule ratio is 1:2). Valency is the adj of valence, which means the valence electron of the atom that is usable for reaction. Valency can also be defined as a measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. In this experiment, the starting weight of magnesium is already known, so hydrogen gas collected can be measured to calculate the stoichiometry reaction, including the valency and the proportional molecule. The purpose of this experiment is to find out the quantitative relations between amounts of reactants and products between magnesium and HCl which is X, by calculating the presence hydrogen atom after the reaction is completed. The value of X is denoted in the following equation, Mg + X HCl i MgClx + X/2 H2 We know that magnesium will react with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride (MgCI) salt. MgCI is soluble but not hydrogen gas, so the gas can be collected in the burette using a filtering funnel. In this experiment, a limiting factor is needed to control the reaction. Magnesium is the best choice since it is in solid form and can be easily fixed in a space compared to hydrochloric acid in aqueous form, so excess hydrochloric acid will ensure that all the known amount of magnesium have reacted. When the volume of the hydrogen gas is obtained, the mole of the gas can be calculated, then substituted into the formula and to get the amount of mole of each molecule, and the difference between how many magnesium we had put in and how many actually reacted can be compared.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Economics from a Historical Perspective Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7000 words

Economics from a Historical Perspective - Essay Example The powerful class of people acquired the ownership of some people from the lower sections of the society, who would perform duties as directed by their masters. These people were called slaves. However, medieval Europe developed a somewhat similar culture of interdependency between two classes of people which was known as â€Å"serfdom†. The medieval serfs were actually the dependant peasants. Serfdom first developed in France, where slavery had not been practices significantly. The European countryside during the Middle Ages were the seat of large houses called â€Å"manors† which were different from the Roman â€Å"villas† of the earlier times. These manors were built according to a typical design and were usually accompanied by large expanses of land meant for farming activities. The manors were the home of the medieval lords, who possessed considerable power and authority and were next to only the king in terms of their position. These lords used to engage p easants to carry out farming in the manor lands belonging to the lords themselves. These poor peasants usually had no land of their own and earned their living by working on the lands of their masters. In return for their services, they were allowed to live in the outhouses of the manors. They were also provided adequate protection by the lords and their armies in case of an unforeseen attack by the barbaric tribes which was common during the medieval times. However, serfdom was quite different from slavery. Here, the lords and serfs were bounded by an informal contract outlining their mutual authorities, obligations and financial relation (Phillips, 57). This marked an improvement in the conditions of the working class where they had been completely subservient to their masters during the prevalence of slavery. The population of Europe (including modern Russia) was estimated to be around 42 million in 1000 grew to about 73 million by 1300, which is recorded as the highest populatio n during the medieval times. During these three centuries, the number of European people increased by 31 million compared to an increase of only 15 million recorded during the three centuries prior to 1000. There were several reasons for this significant growth in population. During the period 1000-1300, medieval Europe was characterized by the cultivation of new lands which increased the overall food supply. The agricultural sector flourished and buoyed by the positivity in the economy, the population started increasing. The human settlement began to expand to new territories, especially to the fertile valleys of the rivers Elba and Oder. The European people moved eastwards to acquire new lands and build their livelihoods over there. They build up their new settlements in mainly three directions: to the south towards the Hungarian plain following the natural course of river Danube, to the central lowlands of â€Å"Thuringia, Saxony and Silesia† and towards the north borderin g the coast of the Baltic sea which finally led to the formation of new cities such as Rostock and Konigsberg. The boundaries of the major existing cities were expanded to include more people within the cities while in the countryside, new castles were constructed and new villages were formed by the increasing population. In addition to this, there was lesser migration of the European people to other countries like Scandinavia in the north, Russia to the east etc. All these factors explained the significant increase

Monday, February 10, 2020

Speaking evaluation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Speaking evaluation - Essay Example She does this by bringing in their life experiences, and effectively and clearly previews the major points within the introduction and transitions between them in a comprehendible format. Additionally, she re-states the thesis statement often and gives reasons as to why his husband should be re-elected and clearly reviews the major points in their concluding section, which brings the entire theme equally clear and presentable. The major points to address are presented discretely as she goes on with her speech, and she also explains on how her points build on the main thesis. Sufficient evidence is used to support the main thesis, and this helps her to draw a good and reasonable argument. In regards to the audience, she engages and inculcates good attention with the audience and delivers with a moderate pace that contributes to the meaning of the speech. Moreover, she applies gestures and speaks confidently with a commendable projection, and this shows that she delivers in a way that builds the clarity of the entire speech session. With regard to the content of the speech, Michelle offers clear and sufficient points to support her arguments. She presents a good structuring of her speech and delivers an excellent oral rendition to the audience. More so, she recorded an exemplary, excellent conversational rendition and it can be said that she successfully delivered the message in her speech. She is audible and emphasizes on her main points and this speech can be rated as

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Organizational Project Management Maturity Model Essay Example for Free

Organizational Project Management Maturity Model Essay 1. Introduction Successful implementation of a new organizational strategy can turn a good organization into a great one. Conversely, strategies that fail or generate poor results can quickly damage the organization’s reputation and brand, internally and externally. Effective strategy execution is the responsibility of all levels of management, who must be involved actively and consistently to orchestrate required organizational changes and to manage the portfolio of investments that underpin these change initiatives. The Organizational Project Management Maturity Model is a framework that provides an organization wide view of portfolio management, program management, and project management to support achieving best Practices within each of these domains. This holistic perspective is a powerful tool enabling successful execution of organizational strategies, portfolios, programs, and projects, especially when these transcend functional and hierarchical boundaries. Moreover, OPM3 global best Practices, applied to the execution of strategy, can drive superior and sustainable results. Effective strategy execution is the responsibility of the organization’s strategic planning and governance structures, which must be involved accurately and consistently to orchestrate required organizational changes. They manage the portfolio of investments that underpin these change initiatives. 2. Organizational project management Organizational project management is the systematic management of projects, programs and portfolios in allignment with the achievements of strategic goals. The concept of organizational project management is based on the idea that there is correlation between organization’s capabilities in project management, program management and portfolio management and its effectiveness implementing strategy. Organizational Project Management Project Portfolio Program Strategic Goals * Project – A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. * Program – A group of realated projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. * Portfolio – Acolloection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management to meet strategic business objectives. 3. OPM3 Model OPM3 is an acronym for the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, a standard wich is developed under the stewardship of the project management institute. The purpose of this standard is to provide a way for organizations to understand organizational project management and to measure their maturity against a comprehensive and broad based set of organizational project management best practices. OPM3 also helps organizations to increase their organizational project management maturity to plan for improvement. 4.1. Primary physical parts of the standard There are three parts; i. Narrative text – presents the OPM3 foundational concepts, with various appendices and glossary ii. Self assessment – provide a tool in support of the assessment step out lined in OPM3 iii. Directories – contain data on nearly 600 organizational project management best practices and their constituent capabilities 4.2. OPM3 Stages There are four sequential stages of process improvement; STANDARDIZE| MEASURE| CONTROL| CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVEMENT| 4. How does the OPM3 work? OPM3 offers the key to organizational project management maturity with three interlocking elements; i. The KNOWLEDGE element lets organizations uncover hundreds of Best Practices and shows them how to use the information available in OPM3. ii. The self ASSESSMENT element is an interactive database tool that lets organizations evaluate their current situation and identify their areas in need of improvement should an organization decided to embark on the path to higher maturity. iii. The IMPROVEMENT element will help map out the steps needed to achieve their goals. * KNOWLEDGE element which drives Assessment * ASSESSMENT element which in turn drives Improvement * IMPROVEMENT element. 5. Benefits of OPM3 to the organization I. It bridges the gap between strategy and individual project. II. It provides a comprehensive body of knowledge regarding what constitutes best practices in organizational project management. III. By using OPM3, an organization can determine exactly which organizational project management best practices and capabilities it does and does not have. IV. If the organization decides to pursue improvements, OPM3 provides guidance on prioritizing and planning. 6. What kind of commitment is required to launch OPM3 in an organization? The process of applying OPM3 in an organization is difficult to quantify. It depends on factors such as the size, complexity and initial maturity of the organization, the thoroughness of the assessment, the nature of the organization’s strategic objectives, and the level of resources available also impact any estimate. However, the assessment portion of such an initiative is most likely to take from several weeks to several months. Should an organization decide to embark upon improvements, the planning and implementation steps are likely to take longer, depending on how many best practices and related capabilities an organization decides to work on at one time. 7. Importance of OPM3 to the project management profession The Project Manager Competency Development Framework is the standard to guide the professional development of project of project managers and those aspiring to be project managers. OPM3 is the first iteration of a standard for organizations. It has the potential to create a new environment for those who are working in the project management profession, by illuminating the important link between projects and organizational strategy and the importance of organizational support to project management practices. The information in OPM3 is based on very broad based input from project management practitioners and consultants. 8. Summary The current global economic climate has ushered in an era of uncertainty that throws the importance of Organizational Project Management (OPM) maturity into sharp relief. It is critical for organizations to renew their ability to create cost efficiencies, economies of scale and agility to adapt to the changing business environment through projects. Companies need the organizational capability to choose the right projects, manage costs, and innovate. They need the organizational capability to delivery projects successfully, consistently, and predictably. The Project Management Institutes OPM3 Standard was developed with input from thousands of project practitioners and represents best practices in Project, Program, and Portfolio Management. OPM3 incorporates the PMIs PMBOK Guide, the most widely adopted standard for managing individual projects, and expands this into the domains of Program Management and Portfolio Management. OPM3 emphasizes choosing the right projects to advance organizational strategies and implementing the processes, structures, and behaviors necessary to deliver projects successfully, consistently, and predictabl y. Standardization of project work methods lays the foundation for achieving higher levels of maturity and excellence to create the organizational agility and resilience you need in todays marketplace. Leading organizations of all types and sizes across multiple industries are adopting OPM3 to transform their ability to close the gap between strategic intent and tactical outcomes through successful project selection and delivery. The preferred method for implementing OPM3 begins with an OPM3 Assessment by a PMI certified OPM3 Professional. 9. References * Project Management Institute, Inc. (2003). Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3). Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3). 1 (1), 1-195. * Project Management Institute, Inc. (2004). An executives guide to OPM3. An executives guide to OPM3. 1 (1), 1-5.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Genetic Engineering, History and Future Essay -- Biology Biological Ar

Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do. With the birth of this new technology, scientific extremists and anti-technologists have risen in arms to block its budding future. Spreading fear by misinterpretation of facts, they promote their hidden agendas in the halls of the United States congress. Genetic engineering is a safe and powerful tool that will yield unprecedented results, specifically in the field of medicine. It will usher in a world where gene defects, bacterial disease, and even aging are a thing of the past. By understanding gene tic engineering and its history, discovering its possibilities, and answering the moral and safety questions it brings forth, the blanket of fear covering this remarkable technical miracle can be lifted. The first step to understanding genetic engineering, and embracing its possibilities for society, is to obtain a rough knowledge base of its history and method. The basis for altering the evolutionary process is dependent on the understanding of how individuals pass on characteristics to their offspring. Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature's evolutionary process when an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel developed the first "laws of heredity." Using these laws, scientists studied the characteristics of organisms for most of the next one hundred years following Mendel's discovery. These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, or genes (Stableford 16). For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his father that were encoded one blue, and the other brown. The same child could also receive two brown genes from his mother. The conclusion for this inheritance would be the child has a three in four chance of having brown eyes, and a one in three chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16). Genes are transmitted through chromosomes which res... ...the outside world. It is also thought that if such bacteria were to escape it would act like smallpox or anthrax and ravage the land. However, laboratory-created organisms are not as competitive as pathogens. Davis and Roche sum it up in extremely laymen's terms, "no matter how much Frostbran you dump on a field, it's not going to spread" (70). In fact Frostbran, developed by Steven Lindow at the University of California, Berkeley, was sprayed on a test field in 1987 and was proven by a RAC committee to be completely harmless (Thompson 104). Fear of the unknown has slowed the progress of many scientific discoveries in the past. The thought of man flying or stepping on the moon did not come easy to the average citizens of the world. But the fact remains, they were accepted and are now an everyday occurrence in our lives. Genetic engineering too is in its period of fear and misunderstanding, but like every great discovery in history, it will enjoy its time of realization and come into full use in society. The world is on the brink of the most exciting step into human evolution ever, and through knowledge and exploration, should welcome it and its possibilities with open arms.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Problem fogel graded

For maxima rule Remote should use option A b. For maximum rule Remote should use option 8 c. For maxima regret Remote should use option A d. For equal probability criterion rule Remote should use option A Chapter 16: Government Regulation of Business 2. When there is a shortage in the industry or firm, it will definitely result in an under allocation of resources. Under allocation can happen without any shortage. For example, if the market is in a monopolistic stage, there is no shortage. The buyers can buy everything they want at a set price.There are various situations where the market can fail due to under allocation of resources that are not caused by shortages. For instance, if the task of minting a building was scheduled to finish at a certain date and there was not enough paint and painters, the manager did not allocate and did not calculate the correct amount of paint needed and did not have enough painters. Thus, a shortage is not a necessary condition for under allocation o f resources. 4. Price gouging seems to occur after natural disasters such as hurricane Strain, Rata, and Sandy.After a disaster, the community is trying to recover from the homes that they have lost and they are trying to get back on their feet. However, many individuals and companies are charging market prices or goods such as gasoline, bottled water and other necessary items at a higher price than the market. According to the FTC price gouging laws are not required, they are counterproductive. For instance, in 2005, after the hurricane Strain and Rata, it caused a shortage in gasoline and it could have possibly triggered an energy emergency (National Center, 2007).If anti- gouging laws are enforced by legislation to lower gas prices than what the market dictates during a supply shortage, FTC said that wholesalers and retailers will run out of gasoline and consumers will be worse off (Stresses, Furthermore, anti-gouging laws end up punishing companies who 2001). Have excess and res erves in advance during a crisis. For instance in the Strain hurricane, one of the lessons learned was to reward companies who have excess of oil and gas at the time when it is greatly needed.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Essay about Athens The Superior Polis Compared to Sparta

Athens was a much more superior polis compared to Sparta because the Athenians invented new ideas and creations that supported the people, such as democracy, the Athenians led the Delian League, and Sparta created the Peloponnesian League after the Athenians created their alliance, and the Athenians changed the ways of their government many times to suit the people, and the Spartans did not. The Athenians created the idea of Democracy which is a widely used form of government today. Solon was credited as the man who created the foundation for Athenian Democracy. He changed the whole game. He threw out the debt of the poor so they would not be slaves anymore, he outlawed the slavery because of debt so that it would never happen again, he†¦show more content†¦It is like the states and counties that the United States of America has. Each tribe chose 50 people and the sub-divisions choose a number of people corresponding to the number of people they had in the sub-division to go into the tribe’s 50 people. The Athenians creating Democracy created a whole new world for today. They wanted to help everyone, so that is why they might have led the Delian League. The Greeks closest to the Persian Empire after the war created the Delian League to protect them from the Persians. The Greeks chose the Athenians to lead them. The Spartans were originally asked to lead them, but the kind was very arrogant, so they retracted their offer. The Spartans then created the Peloponnesian League because they didn’t think the Athenians should lead the Delian League because they were getting too much credit for defeating the Persians in the war. The two leagues didn’t get along at all. This rivalry eventually turned into the Peloponnesian War. This war went on for about 30 years. After the war, the government changed in Athens. The Athenians changed governments many times. They started democracy, they had tyranny, they had aristocracy, they had oligarchy, and they had monarchy. Solon was the one that got rid of the oligarchy. An oligarchy is when a small group of wealthy and high class people rule the government. The Athenians switched aroundShow MoreRelatedAthens vs. Sparta1211 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Athens Vs. Sparta Throughout the ancient world there were two dominating empires. (S) The Athenian City (polis) and the Spartan empire. These two cities were both powerful and famous but significantly different. However, the city of Athens was by far a much more influential and powerful city-state in comparison to Sparta. 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